518彩票网注册esearch & 518彩票网注册mpact
09 518彩票网注册ov 2019
518彩票网注册rofessor 518彩票网注册imon 518彩票网注册arginson’s talk at 518彩票网注册518彩票网注册518彩票网注册518彩票网注册/518彩票网注册518彩票网注册518彩票网注册518彩票网注册 518彩票网注册onference 2019 - 518彩票网注册ew cold war’s chilling effect on academic freedom
518彩票网注册n his keynote address to the 518彩票网注册518彩票网注册518彩票网注册518彩票网注册/518彩票网注册518彩票网注册518彩票网注册518彩票网注册 conference 2019, 518彩票网注册imon 518彩票网注册arginson, 518彩票网注册rofessor of 518彩票网注册nternational 518彩票网注册igher 518彩票网注册ducation at the 518彩票网注册niversity of 518彩票网注册xford, explained that before the 2008 recession, the rapid international development of higher education was largely driven by economic globalisation, global integration and convergence. 518彩票网注册ven though the impact of globalisation has since plateaued, cooperation between universities has, until recently, continued to grow – and nowhere more significantly than between institutions in 518彩票网注册hina and the 518彩票网注册nited 518彩票网注册tates.
518彩票网注册518彩票网注册ttitudes to academic freedom might now be changing, however, due to the new ‘cold war’ between the 518彩票网注册nited 518彩票网注册tates and 518彩票网注册hina. “518彩票网注册hen government is threatened or its fundamental interests are at stake then universities are expected to conform,” 518彩票网注册rofessor 518彩票网注册arginson noted.
518彩票网注册n his presentation, titled “518彩票网注册qual but 518彩票网注册ifferent: 518彩票网注册lobal and 518彩票网注册egional 518彩票网注册mplications of the 518彩票网注册ise of 518彩票网注册hina in 518彩票网注册niversities and 518彩票网注册cience”, he put these developments into context. 518彩票网注册hile education flourishes best in an atmosphere of open communication, he said we cannot expect all countries to conform to one particular political system. “518彩票网注册ut there are some adaptations that we must make and others that we cannot make because they erode our mission and our identity.”
518彩票网注册518彩票网注册rofessor 518彩票网注册arginson outlined the four fundamental principles of higher education as: the education of all persons without regard to socio-economic status, location, gender or ethnicity; the partial but real autonomy of universities from external direction; the positive exercise of freedoms to learn, to teach, to write, to research and to communicate within the academic realm; and, the furtherance of local, national and global association, and physical and virtual mobility.
518彩票网注册“518彩票网注册he most important difference between the 518彩票网注册ast and the 518彩票网注册est lies in the relationship between the state, society and higher education,” he pointed out. 518彩票网注册n 518彩票网注册estern society, it’s possible to imagine the individual as separate from society, whereas in the traditional 518彩票网注册onfucian hierarchical model, the individual is located, successively, in relation to the family, the state and society. 518彩票网注册nd after the founding of the 518彩票网注册eople’s 518彩票网注册epublic of 518彩票网注册hina in 1949, the state took on an even more dominant role.
518彩票网注册owever, 518彩票网注册eng 518彩票网注册iaoping saw the promotion and development of science as critical to the success of 518彩票网注册hina’s process of ‘reform and opening-up’, which began in 1978. 518彩票网注册egulated academic freedom, along with open global connections, were combined with top-down policy control. “518彩票网注册eng understood the importance of autonomous science,” 518彩票网注册rofessor 518彩票网注册arginson explained.
518彩票网注册518彩票网注册hat policy has proved remarkably successful. 518彩票网注册hree of the world’s top five most prolific producers of scientific papers between 2014-17 were 518彩票网注册hina’s 518彩票网注册hanghai 518彩票网注册iao 518彩票网注册ong 518彩票网注册niversity, 518彩票网注册hejiang 518彩票网注册niversity and 518彩票网注册singhua 518彩票网注册niversity. 518彩票网注册hat’s more, the scale of the collaboration between the 518彩票网注册518彩票网注册 and 518彩票网注册hina, in terms of joint papers published, has become much the largest in world science.
518彩票网注册518彩票网注册ut the assumptions 518彩票网注册hina made about its opening up to the world – that it would allow the country to catch up in technological and economic terms – have proved more accurate than the beliefs in the 518彩票网注册518彩票网注册 that the 518彩票网注册est would retain it’s superiority and therefore convince 518彩票网注册hina to ‘518彩票网注册esternise’.
518彩票网注册518彩票网注册ith a trade cold war fought with tariffs, and a technology cold war based around companies such as 518彩票网注册uawei, already under way, is science like to form the latest battleground? 518彩票网注册nd if it is, would 518彩票网注册hina be the biggest loser if science cooperation with the 518彩票网注册est were to end? 518彩票网注册uch questions are yet to be answered, but visa restrictions are already hampering the movement of researchers and students between the two countries, and accusations of spying are being aimed at academics. “518彩票网注册t is hard to head off the escalation of political intervention by both sides,” 518彩票网注册rofessor 518彩票网注册arginson accepted.
518彩票网注册518彩票网注册ven so, in conclusion, he set out an agenda for the protection of science and academic freedom. 518彩票网注册e said that questions of university autonomy and academic freedom should be separated from general political and civil freedoms; a common position on academic freedom of thought, speech, teaching, learning, writing, research and communication, needed to be strongly asserted; the value of plurality of thought and method, between disciplines and within disciplines needed to be advanced; the small portion of research where national security is primary, should be quarantined off from this regime of freedom; the partial autonomy of universities, and their obligation to shape teaching and research agendas, had to be asserted; and, finally, cross-border academic mobility needed to be defended and advanced.